(writ 210) temp site
12. Hypertext into Practice
Exercise: Hypertext project
your project through the development of basic web pages.
Tofts and Murray McKeich, Memory
Trade: A Prehistory of Cyberculture, G + B Arts International, 1998.
Jay David Bolter Writing Space: the computer, hypertext and the history of writing, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991. (Special Reserve)
Remember Tofts examines memory and flowing Ong and Havelock (remember?) suggests that communication technology – including writing - affects how we use memory – memory is context-sensitive.
David Bolter asserted in Writing
Space that hypertext emulates the cognitive functioning of the mind
– by association.
cognitive theory used a logical model of the mind for AI research -
logical serial processing. But from what we know of the brain more
complex ‘neural nets’ are closer models.
marks a critical difference between authoring a unilinear text and
building a hypertext with multiple reading orders. Linking cannot be
ignored. Links give hypertexts their flex, enabling readers to follow
their preferred paths through articles. Mindy McAdams &Stephanie
‘The pure work implies the elocutory disappearance of the poet who
abandons the initiative to words.’ That is high art speaking. The poet
is purely catalyst, involved in alchemy.
Death of the Author’, ‘To
give a text an Author is to impose a limit on that text, to furnish it
with a final signified, to close the writing. Such a conception suits
criticism very well, the latter then allotting itself the important task
of discovering the Author (or its hypostases: society, history, psyche,
liberty) beneath the work: when the Author has been found, the text is
"explained"—victory to the critic. 
Bolter, ‘In an electronic library writers turn easily form writing their own text to reading other texts. The distinction between their own and other texts begins to blur . . .In a full-fledged hypertext the distinction can disappear altogether.’ p216
‘It is as if the computer could dissolve Plato’s distinction between internal and external memory.’ p216
There is no one reality that we have access to – so any use of the term reality must be cautiously approached.
Weinberger posits that a documentary must meet the following
five requirements: (1) it
must attempt to tell a true story in a non-dramatic fashion; (2) it must appear to do so by presenting only factual evidence; (3)
it must not attempt to re-create the truth (though some would defend the
validity of this method); (4)
it must claim objectivity; (5)
most importantly, (and perhaps most difficult to ascertain) it must, as
closely as possible, present all factual evidence in its original
But any use of photography, video or film – any use of text, reportage is a process of construction that influences the depiction of reality at the very least through the selection process.
Many works that purport to be documentary will have some areas of blurred genre or hybridisation.
Using the documentary
to explore Place
Psychologists speak of environment in three sense:
1. the familiar one of E. providing basic requirements nutrients, oxygen, exercise experience etc. that facilitate the common expression of genetic potential, ie the E. of development
2. more recent sense - the environmental selection pressures in our evolutionary past which we now think shape and constrain cognitive functions, ie the E. of evolution.
3. the variable aspects of E. that may be related to individual differences in cognitive ability, the E. of difference.
But attempts to describe environments can remove their dynamic structure.
What is Place?
Tuan offers the following definition: ‘Place is a centre of meaning
constructed by experience. Place is known not only through the eyes and
mind but also through the more passive and direct modes of experience,
which resist objectification. To know a place fully means both to
understand it in an abstract way and to know it as one person knows
Casey suggests another simile, ‘A place is my familiaris (literally, a ‘familiar spirit’). As I know my way
around my own house, so I know my way around all the familiar places of
my ‘habitat’ . . . ‘being is synonymous with being situated.’ [ii]
The wooden hut of Schama’s great-grandfather, a timber worker, stood
in the Treblinka region. Schama finds him pressing his mother, ‘And
just where, exactly, was this place, this house . . . I badly needed to
concept of place is fertile. According to Relph, experiencing place is
different from experiencing landscape due to the concept of 'time' and
associated memories. Landscape can undergo significant changes whereas
place remains the same.[iv]
Carter talks of the poetic property of place ‘The transformational
aspect of personal space something neither a village’s fixed space nor
the camera’s roving eye can capture is ‘a poetic
property’. Space is the active environment where differences and
resemblances first emerge. ‘Places’ within space are not fixed
objects, but moments where our consciousness perceives a connection
which makes it aware of itself.’ [v]
[i] Tuan, Yi-Fu, ‘Place: an experiential perspective’, The Geographical Review 65, 2, pp. 151-165. 1975 p151.
[ii] Casey, Edward S., The Fate of Place, (1997) Uni of California Press, 1998, p232-3. He quotes from Merleau-Ponty’s, Phenomenology of Perception, 1963 p252.
[iii] Schama, ibid, p27-8.
[iv] Relph, E., Place and Placelessness, Pion, 1976, p 31. Walter argues that the quality of a place depends on ‘a human context shaped by memories and expectations, by stories of real and imagined events, that is, by historical experience located there.’ E.W., Walter, ‘The place of experience’, The Philosophical Forum 12, 1980-81, p141.
[v] Carter, Paul, ‘Another Country: The Village in Childhood’, PN Review 55, 1987.p59.
[vi] Harvey, David, Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference, Blackwell, 1996.
[vii] Berry Wendell, ‘Poetry and Place’ in Standing by Words, North Point, 1983, p179. See also Barry Lopez, ‘Losing Our Sense of Place’, Teacher Magazine, Feb, 1990, p188.
in mind the following. I will want these issues to be addressed: